Liangzhu Jade

      Liangzhu Jade
The history of Liangzhu jade (liáng zhǔ yù 良渚玉) can be traced back to 4300 to 5000 years ago. Most Liangzhu jade items were excavated in Fanshan (fǎn shān 反山), Yaoshan (yáo shān 瑶山) in Zhejiang Province (zhè jiāng shěng 浙江省), Qianshanyang (qián shān yàng 钱山漾), Caoxieshan (cǎo xié shān 草鞋山) in Jiangsu Province (jiāng sū shěng 江苏省), and Shanghai (shàng hǎi 上海). The delicacy of Liangzhu jade is beyond praise.

CongThe key Neolithic jade items of Liangzhu culture were found in tombs near Liangzhu about 30 km north of Hangzhou (hang zhōu 杭州), Zhejiang Province. Liangzhu jade is characterized by finely-worked large ritual jades such as Cong (cylinders, cōng 琮), Bi (discs, bì 璧) and also pendants and decorations in the form of chiseled open-work plaques, plates and representations of small birds, turtles and fish. The Liangzhu jade is white, milky, and bone-like due to tremolite rock origin and influence of water-based fluids at the burial sites.

Liangzhu jaed works were made from local nephrite jade, and can be classified into ritual and insignia jade types, as well as implements. They are characterized by the fine work, especially the harmonious and exquisite carving decoration. The most mysterious is the god pattern. With the ferocious face, he’s wearing a huge and luxurious crown of feathers and sits akimbo on mythical beast. This kind of concrete of clan is regarded as a particular symbol of Liangzhu jade works. The appearance of large quantities of ritual jades with religious color, such as zong, is recognized as the dawn of the Chinese civilization.

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良渚玉
Bi      良渚文化玉器距今约5000—4300年。发现玉器的重要地点有江苏钱山漾、吴县草鞋山、张陵山、上海青浦福泉山、江苏武进寺墩、浙江余反山、瑶山等。良诸文化玉器数量很多,玉雕技艺之精湛,令人赞叹不已。良渚文化玉器解放前即已流传于世,曾被误为战国时代玉器。良渚玉器以琮、璧、钺最多,造型宏大雄浑,风格严谨深刻,纹饰以神秘莫测的神人兽面引人入胜,阴线雕刻和浮雕完美组合,成为当时南方玉雕的最高水平代表。

      良渚文化主要玉器有玉琮、璧、瑛、符、镯、佩、珠、管、环、等礼器及梯形器、半圆形器、三叉形冠饰等,还有蝉、鸟等动物。良渚文化最大的特点是:除琮、璧镯等少数玉器为单件外,多数玉器为复合件,其中有组装件、穿缀件和镶嵌件。

      归纳起来看良渚文化玉器的显著特征有以下几方面:其一,玉料多来源本地,部分为软玉;其二,大型玉器多为与宗教、祭祀和象征财富有关。装饰玉器多为小件,缺少生产玉工具;其三,礼器玉器工艺考究,雕琢精细,打磨圆滑,出土玉器常出现“包浆壳”,也称“玻璃光”;其四,玉器纹饰多为剔地浅浮雕和阴线刻,刻线呈细弧线和楔形,显然是用坚硬的器具刻划而成;其五,兽面纹、神人兽面纹饰尤其特殊,纹饰由简到繁、由粗到精,很注重对称美;其六,玉璧多为素面,雕琢粗糙。

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